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Free Content Revisiting the Embryology of the Facial Muscles, the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System, and the Facial Nerve

The facial muscles are responsible for nonverbal expression, and the manner by which these muscles function to express various emotions are reviewed. How one recognizes these various facial expressions and how individuals can alter their facial expression are discussed. The methodology for cataloging facial expressions is also presented. The embryology of the facial muscles; the facial ligaments; and the supporting superficial musculoaponeurotic system, which magnifies the muscle movements, is also reviewed as is the embryology of the facial nerve, which innervates these muscles. Also, a detailed MR imaging atlas of the facial muscles is presented.

Learning Objective: The reader will learn how the facial muscles develop and how they are the means of human nonverbal emotional expression. The anatomy of the facial ligaments and the superficial musculoaponeurotic system are also discussed

Keywords: AU = action unit; SMAS = superficial musculoaponeurotic system

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: May 1, 2021

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