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Free Content Neuroradiology Manifestations of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: Epidemiology, Genetics, Imaging Findings, and Management

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a familial cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene 53, which encodes the tumor suppressor p53 protein. Affected patients are predisposed to an increased risk of cancer development, including soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinoma, among other malignancies. The tumor suppressor gene TP53 plays an important, complex role in regulating the cell cycle, collaborating with transcription factors and other proteins. The disruption of appropriate cell cycle regulation by mutated TP53 is considered to be the cause of tumorigenesis in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Appropriate surveillance, predominantly by using MR imaging, is used for early malignancy screening in an effort to improve the survival rate among individuals who are affected. Patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome are also at increased risk for neoplasm development after radiation exposure, and, therefore, avoiding unnecessary radiation in both the diagnostic and therapeutic settings is paramount. Here, we review the epidemiology, genetics, imaging findings, and the current standard surveillance protocol for Li-Fraumeni syndrome from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network as well as potential treatment options.

Learning Objective: Describe the cause of second primary malignancy among patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

Keywords: LFS = Li-Fraumeni syndrome; TP53 = tumor suppressor gene 53

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2020

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