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Free Content Pediatric Demyelinating Disease: Emerging Patterns from Multiple Sclerosis to Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein‐Associated Encephalomyelitis

Ongoing progress is being made in the understanding of pediatric demyelinating diseases, including the recent discovery of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) encephalitis. Radiologists play a key role in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Demyelinating diseases can be challenging to differentiate from each other and can mimic anti-MOG encephalitis, especially because the various disorders can present with nonspecific radiologic cord findings and overlapping CNS features. There are some key imaging features that can be explained by the more recent development in the pathophysiological basis of these different entities. Attention to pertinent clinical history allows for improved diagnostic accuracy. Identifying MR imaging predictors of a particular demyelinating diagnosis in the pediatric population can have broad implications on treatment.
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