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Free Content Embryology and Anatomy of the Skin, Its Appendages, and Physiologic Changes in the Head and Neck

Although often overlooked as a significant factor in the head and neck, the skin plays an important role in body thermoregulation as well as in detecting pain, pressure, and itch. Knowledge of the embryology of the skin allows a better understanding of the role that skin plays not only during gestation but also in everyday life and how skin changes with certain nonpathologic circumstances. This review was illustrated to help the reader follow the text.

Learning Objective: The reader will learn about the development of the skin and the critical role that skin plays in both prenatal and postnatal life.

Keywords: AMPK = 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BAT = brown adipose tissue; BMP = bone morphogenetic protein; BMZ = basement membrane zone; CNS = central nervous system; Dsg = desmoglein a family of cadherins that play a role in the formation of desmosomes; ECM = extracellular matrix; FGF = fibroblast growth factor; IL = interleukin; LTMR = low-threshold mechanoreceptor; MC1R = melanocortin 1 receptor; MITF = melanogenesis associated transcription factor; MSH = melanocyte-stimulating hormone; MYF5 = myogenic factor 5; MYFS = myogenic regulatory factor myogenic regulatory factors are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that regulate myogenesis; NOTCH = A transmembrane receptor for Delta and Serrate, mediating cell‐cell interactions; PAR2 = protease-activated receptor 2; SHH = sonic hedgehog, a protein, a ligand in the Hedgehog pathway; TYR = tyrosinase; UCP = uncoupling of protein; UCP1 = mitochondrial carrier proteins that catalyze a regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane; UV = ultraviolet; UVA= the longest wave length of UV; WAT = white adipose tissue; WNT = Wingless/int1 family of secreted signaling; cadherin = Cadherins are a class of type-1 transmembrane proteins that play a role in cell adhesion; dermo1 = dermal marker; keratin = K a family of fibrous structural proteins that protects epithelial cells from damage or stress; melanocortin = melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones, which include adrenocorticotropic hormone and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone they are derived from the pituitary gland; protein kinase C = plays a crucial role in signal transduction for a variety of biologically active substances that activate cellular functions and proliferation

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2017

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