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Free Content Craniosynostosis: Diagnosis, Pitfalls, and Management. What the Radiologist Needs to Know

Craniosynostosis is an important clinical entity in the pediatric population and results in significant cosmetic and health effects. Radiologic evaluation, including diagnosis and characterization, is important because surgical correction techniques have improved, which results in decreased morbidity and improved outcomes. Advanced imaging techniques such as 3-dimensional CTs are essential for an accurate diagnosis, surgical planning, and posttreatment evaluation. The authors briefly reviewed the clinical features of craniosynostosis and presented a 3-dimensional CT‐based pictorial review of radiologic findings and associated anomalies in sporadic, syndromic, and secondary forms of craniosynostosis. The cranial sutures naturally fuse at varying age ranges, but none of the sutures should fuse before 19 months of age (with the exception of the metopic suture). The various deformities that result from craniosynostosis, such as scaphocephaly, trigonocephaly, brachycephaly, and cloverleaf cranium, depend on the number and type of sutures involved. Common findings associated with various forms of craniosynostosis include hypertelorism, hypotelorism, and harlequin eye. Craniosynostosis needs to be differentiated from positional plagiocephaly and other pitfalls. Multiple additional congenital deformities are seen in syndromic craniosynostosis. Treatment options usually include surgical management for primary craniosynostosis and conservative management for secondary craniosynostosis.

Learning Objective: Describe the clinical and radiologic features of craniosynostosis, including associated anomalies, treatment options, and pitfalls.
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