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Free Content Embryology, Variations, and Innervations of the Human Neck Muscles

The embryology of the muscles of the neck and face have been somewhat neglected in the literature. In part, this reflects the fact that relatively little is actually known regarding the development of these muscles. However, a picture has emerged that reveals that the neck muscles have branchial, myotomic, and mesenchymal origins. This review discussed what is presently known regarding the embryology of these muscles, with drawings to help the reader follow the text. It also discussed the variants of these muscles, which can cause confusion during surgery, and the embryology and variations of the nerves that innervate these muscles.

Learning Objective: The reader will understand the origins of the various muscles of the face and neck, and the origins of the nerves that innervate these muscles.
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