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Free Content Development of the Skull Base and Calvarium: An Overview of the Progression from Mesenchyme to Chondrification to Ossification

The development of the calvaria, skull base, and facial bones proceeds in an orderly fashion from a mesenchymal anlage, through chondrification, and finally to ossification. This review presents a current overview of the overall process, illustrated with multiple drawings to help make clearer the complex developmental changes that occur.

Learning Objective: List 5 specific events during embryologic development of the skull base that impact the imaging appearance of pediatric and adult skull base pathology.

Keywords: FGFR = fibroblast growth factor receptors; TGF = transforming growth factors

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2013

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